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Deaths from Disease.
In previous wars those dying from disease have usually outnumbered those killed in action. Thus, as recently as the Crimean War, the proportion was four or five to one, in the American Civil War and in the South African War it was about two to one. On the Prussian side in the Franco-German War in 1870 and on the Japanese side in the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5, the latter proportion was reversed, but this was secured only as the result of much careful attention to the cleanliness and habits of each soldier. It was not until the Great War that, on most of the fronts, deaths from disease became negligible in comparison with those of men killed in action. This was partly due to the greater destructiveness of modern weapons, but still more to the increased skill of medical men in preventing disease. This particularly applies to the troops in western Europe. Those elsewhere were not so fortunate, and suffered from malaria in Salonica, Palestine and Mesopotamia, dysentery in Gallipoli, and various tropical diseases in Africa. Some deaths directly due to the conditions of active service abroad have been dealt with already under the different campaigns. Others occurred as follows: —
In I914, G. V. Cross (4th Oxford and Bucks L.I., Educ.) died at Oxford on 9th November of blood poisoning and meningitis, C. Smith (Nat. Res., Asylums) at Croydon on the 29th of ptomaine poisoning, J. A. Lund (R.F.A., Arch.) at Fulham on 12th December of blood poisoning, and F. Woodward (3rd Somer. L.I., Tram.) at Plymouth on the 14th, Lance-Corp. C. M. W. Erwood (7th Beds, Educ.) at Aldershot on the 17th, and W. Rathall (R.F.A., Tram.) on the 29th, all of pneumonia.
In 1915, G. W. Brown (9th Middlesex, Parks) died at Neasden on 27th January of heart failure induced by a chill, J. W. Horrigan (R.F.A., Tram.) on 7th February as the result of an accident at Mere, Wilts, M. Dacey (R.A.S.C, Tram.) on 1st May at Bexhill of pneumonia, Q.-M.-Sergeant W. H. Cox (R.E., Housing) on 26th at Camberwell of cancer, H. C. Rice (R.W. Surr., Asylums) on 14th July at Merstham of an aneurism, H. W. Turner (R.G.A., Asylums) on 24th September at Epsom of nephritis, H. J. Doughty (R.A.M.C, Educ.) at Wandsworth on 12th October after an operation, Lance-Corp. C. J. Dawes (Nat. Reserve, Tram.) at Lewisham on the 27th of pneumonia, A. Joy (24th R. Fusiliers, Parks) at Brentwood on 21st November of liver trouble, and T. J. Middlemiss (Grenadier Guards, Parks) at Belmont, Surrey, on 4th December, of consumption.
In 1916 H. J. Smith (R.M.L.I., Educ.) died of appendicitis on 12th January, J. W. S. Lowe, D.C.M. (R.F.R., L.F.B.) died at Grimsby on the 16th as the result of an accident on H.M.S. Amphitriie, and on the 18th W. S. Richardson (8th Essex, Tram.) died at Edmonton of heart disease. Lieut. J. Steel, B.Sc, B.A. (R.N.V.R., Educ.) on 7th February was suffocated by a fire on the ship on which he was serving, on the 14th Regt.-Sergeant-Maj. W. Rubley (Reserve Cavalry, Educ.) died of cerebro-hsemorrhage following paralysis, and on the 23rd Sergeant F. Gordon (R.M.L.I., Educ.) died at Plymouth of appendicitis. C. J. Andrews (6th London, Tram.) died at Cambridge on 3rd April of peritonitis, Lance-Corp. G. Horsier (5th Beds, Educ.) at Lowestoft on 3rd May of phthisis, J. Cromarty (R.D.C., Tram.) on the 6th of accidental suffocation, Lieut. J. H. Aitken (7th Black Watch, Arch.) was killed at Ripon on 2nd June in a bomb accident, E. J. Coleman (R.F.C., Educ.) on the 10th in a motor cycle accident near Sunbury, W. C. Haward (R.F.A., Tram.) on the 16th in a boating accident near Stratford-on-Avon, A. Russell (4th R.W. Surr., Asylums) died at Croydon on the 17th of dropsy, W. S. Lavender (5th Lancers, Educ.) on the 24th of an aneurism, A. L. J. Hills (10th London, Parks) at Salisbury Plain on the 27th of cerebro-spinal meningitis, D. Johnson (15th London, Compr.) near Winchester on 5th August of appendicitis, W. H. Radley (19th Kings Royal Rifles, Parks) at the London Hospital on the 24th of dysentery and peritonitis, F. C. Panthng (9th Middlesex, Parks) at Murree, India, on 6th September of appendicitis, D. A. Frame (R.F.R., Tram.) on the 9th of general debility following malaria, A. Williams (Tram.) on the 13th of pulmonary haemorrhage. Staff Sister A. M. Russell (Q.A.A.N.R., Pub. H.) at Millbank on 5th October of septic glands following diphtheria, S. Harries (24th Kings Royal Rifles, Educ.) at Ashington, Northumberland, on 30th November of pneumonia, P. L. Thorn (5th Oxford and Bucks L.L, Tram.) in France on 11th December of ear trouble, P. J. Taylor (2nd London, Educ.) on the 13th at Aldeburgh of pneumonia, and Lance-Corp. W. K. Gossop (3rd Northd. Fusiliers, Tram.) on the 27th at Sunderland of pneumonia.
In 1917 W. J. F. Day (R.E., Tram.) died at Chatham on 19th February of pneumonia, Sergeant G. G. Treacher (R. Fusiliers, L.F.B.) was accidentally killed at Dover on 4th March, F. R. White (R.F.R., Tram.) died at Portsmouth on 21st April of pneumonia, R. J. Jobling (R.D.C., Ch. Engr.) near Weymouth on 20th July of cerebral haemorrhage, T. S. Chaplin (R.E., Tram.) at Colchester on the 30th of paralysis, Sergeant A. E. Durban (10th Middlesex, Educ.) in India on 22nd August, Corp, A. Longhurst (R.E., Ch. Engr.) on 7th September of cancer, and Sergeant W. A. Stanfield (R.A.M C, Educ.) in Egypt on 1st October as the result of a motor cycle accident.
In 1918, Sergeant J. E. Bailey. M.M. (1st R. Welch Fusiliers, Asylums) died at Manchester on 9th January of pneumonia, A. G. Poffiey (R A.M.C., Asylums) died on the 17th of duodenal ulcer, C. E. Allen (R.N.R., Tram.) on the 25th of blood poisoning, T. Davis (R.H.A., Parks) died at Meerut, India, on 5th March, Corp. H. Brown, B.Sc. (7th Middlesex, Educ.) in London on the 7th of cancer, A. F. Tarry (R.F.A., Tram.) on 6th April of septic poisoning, E. A. Maidment (R.G.A., Educ.) on the 16th as the result of an operation, H. W. Porter (8th E. Surr., Tram.) died in Germany on 3rd May, as the result of an accident, Sergeant E. Skingle (R.G.A., Tram.) on the 18th of heart disease, Regt. Q.-M.-S. A. H, Traylen (Labour Corps., Educ.) at Homerton on nth June, as the result of an accident, Sergeant H. J. Carrington (10th Middlesex, Educ.) on 19th July as the result of a bomb accident, Lance-Corp. T. B. Tingay (R.E., Tram.) at Walton on 23rd August as the result of an explosion, J. H. Cummins (4th R. Scots Fusiliers, Tram.) at Edinburgh on 3rd November of bronchitis, Sergeant A. J. Barringer (2/1st Surrey Yeo., Educ.) at Gort, CO. Galway on 25th December, as the result of an accident.
This year was marked by two severe influenza epidemics, one in the summer (June- July) and the other in the autumn (Oct.-Nov.); a third followed
in 1919 (Feb -Mar.). 1 Those who died in 1918 included Lieut. E. R. Free (R.G.A., Educ.) at Winchester on 16th July, C. B. Horn (R.A.M.C, Educ.) at Brighton on the 17th, J. Fisher (R.E., Educ.) at Monmouth on 16th August, E. B. Clements (R.G.A., Tram.) at Tooting on 10th October, Lieut. C. G. Pearse (R.F.A., Educ.) at Luton on the 20th, J. E. Edwards (R.A.F., Educ.) on the 22nd, J. Crow (R.F.A., Ch. Engr.) at Mile End on the 25th, F. Winter (6th E. Surr., Tram.) at Agra, India, on the 31st, A. J. Gilchrist (37th Northumberland Fusiliers, Housing) at Margate on 3rd November, H. Collier (R.E., Tram.) at Kingston on the 6th, Lance-Corp. H. W. C. Davenport (25th Lend., Tram.) at Jutogh, India, on the 13th, A. G. Billson (R.N.A.S., Parks) at Oueensferry on the 16th, I. H. Bonshor (R.G.A., Educ.) near Grantham on nth December, W. H. Godfrey (3rd Essex, Parks) on the 24th, and Lieut. H. E, vShepherd (R.F.A., Educ.) at Dover on the 30th.
The deaths in 1919 from the same disease included C. Bennett (16th Manchester, Stores) at Homerton on 21st January, J. M. Mace (R.E., Asylums) at Dunkirk on the 26th, Corp. J. Opie (R.A.S.C, Educ.) near Cologne, Capt. G. J. Bradley (Labour Corps, Educ.) at Camiers on 17th February, Armourer Staff-Sergeant E. J. Weall (R.A.O.C, Asylums) at Queenstown on the 18th, Capt. W. H. Swallow, O.B.E. (R.A.O.C, Educ.) at St, Omer on the 21st, B. W. F. Starling (R.N.A.S., Comp.) and H. C. Chapman (A.P.C., Solr.) on the 24th, Hon. Maj. W. A. Miller (R.A.M.C, Educ.) at Farnborough on 2nd March, A. A. Bennett (34th London, Ch. Engr.) at Dunkirk on the 11th, J. Cahill (R.A.M.C, Tram.) at Gibraltar on the 16th, and Corp J. S. Jones (R.A.M.C, Educ.) on 5th April.
Other deaths in 1919 from different causes included W. G. Burningham (19th Middlesex, Tram.) at Denmark Hill on 5th January of paralysis, Sergeant H. J. Wilcox (9th Middlesex, Clerk) in Mesopotamia on 10th March from the effects of an operation, Lieut. W. E. Foale (R.G.A., Arch.) at Newcastle on 1st May of erysipelas and pneumonia, W. F. D. Peters (R.A.M.C, Arch.) near Bonn on the 2nd from cerebral haemorrhage, Sub.-Lieut. B. P. O'Hara (R.N.R., Comp.) at Malta on 14th October of pneumonia, and Capt. S. Cohen (Egyp. Labour Corps, Clerk) murdered at Cairo on 23rd November.